Title: Final Verdict


This chapter focuses primarily on the divine council scene in Revelation 4-5 and the 24 elders.


Bibliography included in the book


Derek Kidner, Ezra and Nehemiah: An Introduction and Commentary (vol. 12; Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1979)


J. J. M. Roberts, “The Divine King and the Human Community in Isaiah’s Vision of the Future,” in The Quest for the Kingdom of God: Studies in Honor of George E. Mendenhall (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1983), 127-136


Joseph M. Baumgarten, “The Duodecimal Courts of Qumran, Revelation, and the Sanhedrin” Journal of Biblical Literature 95 (1976) 59–78


David E. Aune, Revelation 1–5 (vol. 52A; Word Biblical Commentary; Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 1998)

  • On the divine council as backdrop to this passage, see pp. 303-305


G. K. Beale, The Book of Revelation: a Commentary on the Greek Text (New International Greek Testament Commentary; Grand Rapids, MI; Carlisle, Cumbria: W.B. Eerdmans; Paternoster Press, 1999)


John D. W. Watts, Isaiah 1-33 (vol. 24, Revised Edition; Word Biblical Commentary; Nashville: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 2005)


Timothy M. Willis, Yahweh’s Elders (Isa 24,23): Senior Officials of the Divine Court,” Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 103:3 (1991): 375-385


C. C. Newman, “Jerusalem, Zion, Holy City,” Dictionary of the Later New Testament and Its Developments (ed. Ralph P. Martin and Peter H. Davids; Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1997)


Additional Bibliography


Hurtado, Larry W. “Revelation 4-5 in the Light of Jewish Apocalyptic Analogies,” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 8, no. 25 (1985): 105-124


Laszlo Gallusz, The Throne Motif in the Book of Revelation (The Library of New Testament Studies; Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2014)


Gottfried Schimanowski, “ ‘Connecting Heaven and Earth’: The Function of the Hymns in Rev. 4-5,” in Heavenly Realms and Earthly Realities in Late Antique Religions (ed. Ra’anan Boustan and Reed Annette Yoshiko; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 67-84


R. Dean Davis, The Heavenly Court Judgment of Revelation 4-5 (University Press of America, 1992)


Darrell D. Hannah, “The Throne of his Glory: The Divine Throne and Heavenly Mediators in Revelation and the Similitudes of Enoch,” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche 94, no. 1-2 (2003): 68-96


Russell S. Morton, One upon the Throne and the Lamb: A Tradition Historical/Theological Analysis of Revelation 4-5 (Studies in Biblical Literature 110; Peter Lang, 2007)


David J. Halperin, The Faces of the Chariot: Early Jewish Responses to Ezekiel’s Vision (Texte und Studien zum antiken Judentum 16; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1988)


M. Himmelfarb, “Apocalyptic Ascent and the Heavenly Temple,” in Society of Biblical Literature 1987 Seminar Papers (ed. K. H. Richards; Atlanta: Scholars, 1987), 210–17