Title: Realm Distinction


This chapter dealt with sacrifice, holiness, sacred space, and Azazel in the Day of Atonement ritual. With respect to the last element, I wanted to note that I do not espouse the ransom theory of the atonement. Azazel is not being paid a ransom. Beyond that consideration, I don’t feel any urgency to affirm any one approach to the atonement. The atonement is a multi-faceted concept. I am concerned, however, that the notion of substitution not be eliminated from a biblical theology of atonement. Substitutionary atonement is an important part of the meaning of the broad concept, particularly with respect to the cross.


Bibliography included in the book


Menahem Haran, Temples and Temple-Service in Ancient Israel: An Inquiry into the Character of Cult Phenomena and the Historical Setting of the Priestly School (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978)


W. F. Albright, “The Furniture of El in Canaanite Mythology,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 91 (1943): 39-44


Richard Averbeck: “Sacrifices and Offerings,” Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2003)


Richard Averbeck, “כָּפַר (kāpar II),” New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology & Exegesis (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1997), 689–709


James Palmer, “Exodus and the Biblical Theology of the Tabernacle,” in Heaven on Earth (ed. T. Desmond Alexander and Simon Gathercole; Carlisle England: Paternoster Press, 2004), 11-22


Gregory Beale, “The Final Vision of the Apocalypse and Its Implications for a Biblical Theology of the Temple‍,” in Heaven on Earth (ed. T. Desmond Alexander and Simon Gathercole; Carlisle England: Paternoster Press, 2004), 191-210


Jon D. Levenson, Creation and the Persistence of Evil: The Jewish Drama of Divine Omnipotence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), especially chapter 7


Eric E. Elnes, “Creation and Tabernacle: the Priestly Writer’s ‘Environmentalism’,” Horizons in Biblical Theology 16, no. 1 (1994): 144-155


Gordon J. Wenham, “Sanctuary Symbolism in the Garden of Eden Story,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Congress of Jewish Studies (ed. M. Goshen-Göttstein and D. Assaf; Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1986), 19-24


T. Stordalen, Genesis 2-3 and Symbolism of the Eden Garden in Biblical Hebrew Literature (CBET 25; Leuven: Peeters, 2000)


A. M. Rodriguez, “Sanctuary Theology in the Book of Exodus,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 29 (1991): 213-224


Shimon Bakon, “Creation, Tabernacle, and Sabbath,” Jewish Bible Quarterly 25, no. 2 (1997): 79-85


Daniel C. Timmer, Creation, Tabernacle, and Sabbath: The Sabbath Frame of Exodus 31:12-17; 35:1-3 in Exegetical and Theological Perspective (FRLANT 227; Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2009)


Richard J. Clifford, “The Tent of El and the Israelite Tent of Meeting,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 33.2 (1971): 221-27


Carol Myers, “Lampstand,” Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992), vol. 4:143


Carol L. Meyers, The Tabernacle Menorah: A Synthetic Study of a Symbol from the Biblical Cult (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2003)


Menahem Haran, “The Ark and the Cherubim: Their Symbolic Significance in Biblical Ritual,” Israel Exploration Journal 9:1 (1959): 30-38


B. Janowski, “Azazel,” Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (ed. Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst; Leiden: Brill; Eerdmans, 1999)


Hayim Tawil, “Azazel, the Prince of the Steepe: A Comparative Study,” Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 92:1 (1980): 43-59


Dominic Rudman, “A Note on the Azazel Goat Ritual,” Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 116:3 (2004): 396-401


Robert Helm, “Azazel in Early Jewish Tradition,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 32:3 (Autumn 1994): 217-226


Additional Bibliography


Jonathan Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (Oxford University Press, 2006)


Jonathan Klawans, “Rethinking Leviticus and Rereading Purity and Danger,” AJS Review 27, no. 01 (2003): 89-101


Jonathan Klawans, “Pure Violence: Sacrifice and Defilement in Ancient Israel,” Harvard Theological Review 94, no. 02 (2001): 135-157


Jonathan Klawans, Impurity and sin in ancient Judaism Oxford University Press, 2004


Barry M. Gittlen, Sacred time, sacred place: archaeology and the religion of Israel (Eisenbrauns, 2002)


J. E. Taylor, “The Asherah, the Menorah and the Sacred Tree,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 66 (1995) 29–54


R. W. Klein, “Back to the Future: The Tabernacle in the Book of Exodus,” Int 50 (1996) 264–76


G. A. Klingbeil, “Ritual Space in the Ordination Ritual of Aaron and His Sons as found in Leviticus 8,” JNSL 21 (1995) 59–82


R. P. Knierim, “Conceptual Aspects in Exodus 25:1–9,” in Pomegranates and Golden Bells: Studies in Biblical, Jewish, and Near Eastern Ritual, Law, and Literature in Honor of Jacob Milgrom (ed. D. P. Wright, D. N. Freedman and A. Hurvitz Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1995) 113–23


P. P. Jenson, Graded Holiness: A Key to the Priestly Conception of the World (JSOTS 106; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1992


F. M. Cross, “The Priestly Tabernacle and the Temple of Solomon,” in From Epic to Canon: History and Literature in Ancient Israel (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998) 84–95


T. Frymer-Kensky, “Pollution, Purification, and Purgation in Biblical Israel,” in The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman in Celebration of His Sixtieth Birthday, ed. C. Meyers and M. O’Connor (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983) 399–414


J. Gammie, Holiness in Israel (OBT; Minneapolis: Fortress, 1989)


J. E. Hartley, “Holy and Holiness, Clean and Unclean,” Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2003)


R. E. Averbeck, “Tabernacle,” Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2003)


D. P. Wright, The Disposal of the Impurity: Elimination Rites in the Bible and in Hittite and Mesopotamian Literature (SBLDS 101; Atlanta 1987) 15–74


D. P. Wright, “Azazel,” Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992), 1: 536–537


G. J. Wenham, “Sanctuary Symbolism in the Garden of Eden Story,” in “I Studied Inscriptions from Before the Flood”: Ancient Near Eastern and Literary Approaches to Genesis 1–11, ed R. S. Hess and D. Tsumura (SBTS 4: Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1994) 19–25


L. L. Grabbe, “The Scapegoat: A Study in Early Jewish Interpretation,” JSJ 18 (1987) 152–167